Deviance
Labeling theory , history, sociological aspects, treatments, social control, defiant behavior, personality, motivation, moral panics, disabilities, adolescence, and across cultures

  • Deviant behavior may violate formally-enacted rules or informal social norms.
  • Formal deviance includes criminal violation of formally-enacted laws. Examples of formal deviance include robbery, theft, rape, murder, and assault.
  • Informal deviance refers to violations of informal social norms, which are norms that have not been codified into law. Examples of informal deviance include picking one’s nose, belching loudly, or standing unnecessarily close to another person.
  • Deviance can vary dramatically across cultures. Cultural norms are relative, which makes deviant behavior relative as well.


Functions and Structures of Social Institutions
primary sociological institutions: family, religion, education, and government

  • explain what sociologists mean by a social institution;
  • describe how the social concept of family is understood differently in different cultures;
  • recognize variations in family life;
  • describe the prevalence of single parents, cohabitation, same-sex couples, and unmarried individuals;
  • discuss the social impact of changing family structures;
  • explain how the major sociological paradigms view religion;
  • describe how the education system is a social institution;
  • define and differentiate between power, authority, and different types of authority;
  • define and compare common forms of government, such as monarchy, oligarchy, dictatorship, and democracy;
  • explain how functionalists, conflict theorists, and interactionists view government and politics;
  • identify the basic elements of poverty in the U.S. today;
  • differentiate between agrarian, capitalist, and socialist economic systems; and
  • explain the concept of globalization as it pertains to work and the economy.



​